What are the cutaneous neoformations?
Neoformations of the skin are represented by alterations of the surface of the skin of various natures. Generally they are benign lesions (fibromas, verruccas, condylomas etc.), but sometimes there are to be found malignant lesions (base cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, melanomas).
Skin tumours, in fact, make up the most common tumoral forms and in about 80% of the cases they affect the face, the scalp and the neck, where, in addition to their medical relevance, they can compromise the person’s aesthetic appearance. Over the last years we have witnessed a constant increase in the incidence of neoformations which is due to a tendency to expose oneself to the sun in every period of the year, as well as to better diagnostic capabilities and a greater awareness in the populations of the risk involved in these lesions. Undoubtedly some people are at a greater risk of developing neoformations of the skin, based on their photo-type and lifestyle: generally the low photo-types (light, thin skin, light coloured hair) are more sensitive to UV radiations; on the contrary the high photo-types (olive and dark skins) are more resistant, but precisely because of this tend to expose themselves more to the sun and to accumulate a global dose of radiation that can turn out to be equally damaging.
Removing cutaneous neoformations
As well as eliminating the lesion itself, the surgical removal of a skin neoformation permits a definite diagnosis by means of the histological test (examination under the microscope of very fine portions of what has been removed). Sometimes it is possible to remove nevi for aesthetic reasons alone. In fact the removal of a nevus does not involve any risk of transforming into a malignant tumour.
Amongst the benign lesions we should mention verruccas (caused by the papillomavirus), fibromas and keratoses, which constitute the manifestation of an abnormal growth of the epithelial cells of the skin. They are usually removed using surgical laser, but they can also be removed surgically, with an aesthetic aim, but also to eliminate the risk of irritations or lesions should they be situated in areas which are subject to mechanical rubbing, (on the neck, or in the area of the belt or bra).
Effects of removing cutaneous neoformations
Xanthelasmas are caused by an accumulation of lipids at the level of the dermis of the skin on the eyelids. Even if ablative laser treatment is possible, the rate of recurrence is high so normally they are removed surgically.
In all these cases the surgical removal procedure is simple, fast and is carried out with a local anaesthetic by means of a lozenge-shaped incision and subsequent suture which leaves a thin scar which is normally scarcely visible. The tissue removed can then be sent for histological testing. The stitches are generally removed after 5-8 days.
After surgery, it is indispensable not to expose the area to solar radiation for at least two months. The possible complications to be mentioned are the formation of hypertrophic or keloid scars, caused by individual skin reactivity, in specific anatomical areas, or to an infection of the wound.